Fungal Infections

A fungal infection, also called mycosis, is a skin disease caused by a fungus. There are millions of species of fungi. They live in the dirt, on plants, on household surfaces, and on your skin. Sometimes, they can lead to skin problems like rashes or bumps.

The medical name for a fungal skin infection is Tinea. Types of fungal infections include :

  • Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis): The most common type of fungal infection, this condition often spreads when people walk barefoot in public bathrooms or locker rooms. The skin between your toes turns white and starts to peel. It can also affect the soles (bottoms) of the feet.
  • Nail fungus (onychomycosis): This infection is a common foot problem. It usually affects the toenails, which become yellow and thick and break easily.
  • Jock itch (tinea cruris): A rash of the groin area, jock itch affects more men than women.
  • Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis): This rash occurs mostly in children. It causes hair loss, but with the right treatment, the hair usually grows back.
  • Ringworm (tinea corporis): This “catch-all” term is what healthcare providers call a rash that doesn’t fit into any other category. The rash often forms a ring shape.
How can I prevent Fungal Infections?
  • Good Skin Hygiene
    • Use Mild Soaps and cleansers
    • Don’t use scrubs
  • Good Foot Hygiene –
    • Change your socks and wash your feet regularly. Avoid shoes made of plastic, which doesn’t breathe.
    • Don’t walk barefoot, especially in places that may be wet, such as gym showers and locker rooms.
    • When cutting your toenails, cut straight across the nail.

Bacterial Infections

Common Bacterial Infections include
  • Pyodermas
  • Impetigo
  • Soft tissue infections
  • Superficial
Risk Factors for such infections include :-
  • Diabetes
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • Cancer and chemotherapy
  • Chronic lymphedema
  • Cirrhosis
  • Neutropenia
  • Renal failure
  • Systemic atherosclerosis

Viral Infections

Warts are harmless skin growths caused by a virus called human Papilloma virus. They can grow on any part of the body, like on the face, along the forearms or on the finger. These have a rough surface on which tiny, dark dots can often be seen. On pressure areas like the palms or the soles, they appear flat. Warts on the sole (called plantar warts) grow inward from the pressure of standing and walking and are often painful.
Warts are common and can be a nuisance. They may bleed if injured. They are contagious, and may spread from one part of the body to another or to other children. We don’t know why some people get warts while others don’t. There is no way to prevent it.
They often disappear by themselves, especially in young children. This spontaneous disappearance is less common in older children and adults.
Warts on the genitals are usually sexually acquired. On the beard region, these have a tendency for spreading.

Treatment for Warts

Treatment consists of destroying the outer layer of skin where it grows. This can be done by
  • surgery,
  • laser ablation,
  • electrocautery (destroying with a weak current),
  • freezing (with liquid nitrogen) or with
  • chemicals like salicylic acid.


Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast, rod-shaped bacillus. The disease mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. Leprosy is curable and treatment in the early stages can prevent disability.
Girls and women affected by Hansen’s disease face the added issue of gender and social discrimination, which may also delay detection of the disease
Many people living with Hansen’s disease are unable to work due to disability caused by the disease or may face stigma that prevents them from working.
The good news is that Hansen’s disease is curable with medicines.

Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are passed from person to person through sexual contact. HIV is an STI. They are mainly spread by sexual contact such as vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
If you test positive and are treated, it is important that your partner receive treatment in order to prevent reinfection.
Many such Common Diseases include :-
  • Syphilis
  • Pubic Lice
  • Chancroids
  • Gonorrhea
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Genital Warts
  • Herpes etc.
The Bottom Line Is : – See your health care provider right away if :
  • You have had sexual contact with someone who may have an STI
  • You have symptoms like genital sores, discharge, or burning when you urinate
  • You are pregnant